Speeding Up the Process of Finding a New Position

If you find yourself suddenly unemployed or if you were laid off months ago, it’s probably no surprise to hear that it could be several months before you’re gainfully employed again. According to employment experts, these days it can take six months to find a job after a layoff. Here’s how to manage an extended job search:

Do a self assessment. Take a step back and decide if you’re working in the industry that’s right for you and using your strongest skills. Before beginning your job search — or if you’ve been at it a while without success — evaluate where your skills will be the best utilized. Deanna Leonard, executive vice president of Williams, Roberts, Young Inc., an executive coaching firm in Winston-Salem, N.C., advises her clients to take a Myers Brigg test or other psychological assessments to get a handle on strengths and weaknesses.

Have a financial plan in order. Take an inventory of your financial responsibilities, savings and debts and construct a financial plan to sustain you; if you did so early on, but the search is dragging out, reassess your plan. Register for health insurance or Cobra benefits immediately; laid-off employees generally have up to just 60 days to register for Cobra once they receive their eligibility notice, says Ms. Leonard. File for unemployment as soon as you’re eligible, as there may be a lag time in getting benefits.

Go beyond the usual suspects. “The hidden job market accounts for 70% of jobs out there, and the only way to reach [them] is by networking,” says Ali Chambers, vice president of ClearRock, an executive coaching and outplacement firm in Boston. Whether it’s by reconnecting with contacts over coffee, attending meetings of professional and trade groups or finding old colleagues on LinkedIn, networking is integral to landing a job today. “Don’t spend all day on the job boards when you should be out shaking hands and meeting people,” says Ms. Leonard.

Make yourself stand out. Hiring managers are flooded with résumés nowadays. Brett Good, president of recruiting firm Robert Half International’s Southern California and Arizona locations, says your résumé should have “return on investment statements” that show potential employers how you can generate revenue, save money, or otherwise make an impact on an organization.

Stay relevant. Stay on top of developments in your industry through newsletters or a professional group. If you’ve been out of work for several months, consider enrolling in a technology class or seminar related to your field at a community college to build on your skills. There are also free online seminars given by professional organizations, says Tony Santora, senior vice president for Right Management’s Transition Center of Excellence, which is responsible for the outplacement firm’s strategy for career-transition services globally.

Be patient. Job searches are taking longer because hiring managers are interviewing more people for open positions than in years past, says Mr. Good. Update interviewers with whom you’ve had a positive experience about your status. And temper your follow-ups with “enthusiasm and professionalism” without becoming a pest by calling too often, says Ms. Chambers.

Write to Dana Mattioli at dana.mattioli@wsj.com


Tool Up for Midcareer Job Hunt

Tool Up for Midcareer Job Hunt


While finding a new job in a recession is tough, midcareer job seekers have some advantages, career experts say.

Midcareer workers have experience under their professional belts that younger colleagues don’t. And they have the versatility that comes to practitioners who have picked up various skills along the way, recruiters and counselors point out.

But positioning yourself right in a midcareer job search is still a must in an economic environment that finds employers cutting hundreds of thousands of jobs every month. Here are five tips from experts on finding a job.

1 Review your résumé.

Midcareer job seekers should make sure their credentials, especially for technology, are up to date.

“It’s important to keep your skills refreshed and updated,” says Kim Isaacs, director of ResumePower.com, a career-advice site. “People in midcareer can get very complacent, and they may rely on their employer to sponsor training. Don’t rely on your employer, because they may not have your best interests at heart.”

Instead, take charge of your own professional development. “It’s just very competitive out there. If you go into the job-search world and you see a lot of skills on job postings, you need to have those,” Ms. Isaacs says. “Even if you’re happy in your job, once in a while go out and look for your job title and see what skills are being requested frequently.”

2 Look for hybrid jobs.

Midcareer workers could help themselves find a new spot during the recession by looking for hybrid jobs, which require knowledge of more than one skill, says Betsy Richards, director of career resources at Kaplan University, an online education service.

“If you can show you have multiple talents, you have a better chance of getting the job over someone who has spent their whole life being very focused,” Ms. Richards says.

“We are moving away from the focused job where someone is only doing, for example, finance. Instead, they might be doing finance and project management,” she says.

3 Network.

You’ve built personal and professional relationships over the years — now use them.

“Tap into your contacts, and your contacts’ contacts,” says Jill Silman, vice president with Meador Staffing Services in Texas. “If you’ve gotten 10, 15 or 20 years under your belt, then your reputation can work for you. If you are kind of a quiet player, then you are going to have to rely more on your network.”

Don’t be shy about telling people you are looking for work. “You tell a couple of people, and they tell a couple of people,” Ms. Silman says. “It won’t hurt to have more eyes and ears out there looking on your behalf.”

4 Know your online tools.

Ms. Isaacs suggests that job seekers “build their own brand.” That can include creating a Web site to highlight your portfolio of work and qualifications.

This recession will be the first time some out-of-work midcareer workers use the Internet to find a job, and it’s important to learn how to conduct an effective online search, Ms. Richards says.

Focus on job boards that target specific industries or salary ranges, rather than a general listing service, advises Bob Skladany, chief career counselor for RetirementJobs.com. “Ask yourself: ‘Where would an employer post a job for someone with 10 or 20 years of experience?’ ” he says. “If you go to specific job boards, you are apt to do much better. The entry-level jobs tend to get broadly posted.”

5 Be flexible.

Because the recession has increased the competition for jobs and squeezed companies, job seekers should prepare to take a pay cut, Ms. Richards says.

“Expect a lesser salary than what you are used to because of competition,” she says. “There are a lot of midcareerists out there looking for work. There are a lot of people out there who have a lot of experience.”

Ms. Isaacs says that as a way to get started, workers can take positions with fewer-than-ideal hours, or even relocate or enter a new industry.

“In this tough job market, you need to be flexible. Consider temp work — it’s not a bad thing. Consider contract work,” Ms. Isaacs says. “Consider relocation or a career change. Because there is such a big applicant pool, employers can be selective. So that’s why it’s important for job seekers to know what their transferable skills are.”


What Is Your Greatest Weakness? The Dreaded Question

Worldwide Panel LLC, a small market-research firm, is getting flooded with résumés for four vacancies in sales and information technology.

However, officials expect to reject numerous applicants after asking them: “What is your greatest weakness?” Candidates often respond “with something that is not a weakness,” say Christopher Morrow, senior vice president of the Calabasas, Calif., concern. “It is a deal breaker.”

The weakness question represents the most common and most stressful one posed during interviews. Yet in today’s weak job market, the wrong answer weakens your chances of winning employment.

Some people offer replies they mistakenly assume that bosses love, such as “I am a perfectionist.” That response “will be used against you” because you appear incapable of delegating, warns Joshua Ehrlich, dean of a master’s program in executive coaching sponsored by BeamPines Inc., a New York coaching firm and Middlesex University in London.

A careful game plan could help you cope with the shortcoming query in a way that highlights your fit for a desired position. Job seekers who field the question well demonstrate that they can “take initiative and improve themselves,” Mr. Morrow says.

The key? Thorough preparation. Career specialists suggest you take stock of your weaknesses, focusing on job-related ones that won’t impede your ability to perform your duties. Tony Santora, an executive vice president for Right Management, a major outplacement firm in Philadelphia, says an information-technology manager flubbed a 2007 interview by choosing a personal foible as his reply: “My true weakness is that I am a terrible cook.”

Rehearse your responses aloud, role play with a friend or videotape yourself — but don’t memorize your words. As you review the video, look for aspects “you would like to change so you can continue to get better as you practice,” says Peggy Klaus, a leadership coach in Berkeley, Calif.

The IT manager changed his tune after practice sessions with fellow job seekers and a counselor in Cincinnati for Right Management. He instead said he worked such long hours that he found it difficult to stay current with world events. So, he spent 30 minutes every evening catching up at home.

When the manager pursued an opportunity at a global drug maker, his revamped response “really resonated with the interviewer,” says Mr. Santora. The manufacturer hired the man.

It’s equally important that you consider an employer’s corporate culture. While being interviewed by a start-up, “you could say, ‘My weakness is I get bored by routine,'” says Ben Dattner, a New York industrial psychologist.

Last month, an aspiring executive director of a nonprofit group in suburban San Francisco nearly jeopardized his selection because his reply to a variation of the weakness question ignored one of its core values, according to Ms. Klaus, a board member there. Near the end of his interview, she wondered whether he might have problems with any aspects of the job. “No, I am confident I could do it all,” the prospect declared.

His flip comment dismayed Ms. Klaus, because she felt he lacked awareness of his weaknesses. She says his response raised doubts among board members that “he would be able to take critical feedback,” an attribute the organization values highly.

Because the man was well-qualified, the board gave him a second interview — and demanded a fuller explanation of his weak spots. He said he had been “unprepared for that question and nervous about coming out with a big fatal flaw,” then described his tendency to make decisions too fast during workplace crises. Board members’ doubts disappeared, and they picked him for the nonprofit’s top job.

Ideally, your reply also should exclude the word “weakness” and cover your corrective steps. Dubbing your greatest fault a “window of opportunity” signals your improvement efforts should benefit the workplace, says Oscar Adler, a retired Maidenform Brands sales executive and author of the book, “Sell Yourself in Any Interview.” For instance, he suggests, a salesman might note that he sold more after strengthening his facility with numbers.

When an interviewer pops this nerve-wracking query, your body language counts as well. The wrong nonverbal cues undercut your credibility. Certain candidates hunch over, glance furtively around the room or wring their sweaty palms. “They sort of look like they’re being asked a question they can’t handle,” says Mr. Adler.

Maintaining eye contact, regular breathing and a broad smile impress employers that “you’re prepared for the weakness question,” says psychotherapist Pat Pearson, author of “Stop Self-Sabotage!”

For the same reason, you seem thoughtful if you pause before responding. But don’t wait too long. “If you’re going to take a minute,” Mr. Morrow cautions, “I’ve just identified your weakness.”

Write to Joann S. Lublin at joann.lublin@wsj.com

Weakness Warnings

A sample of wrong answers to the most common interview questions:

“I have no weaknesses”

“I am a workaholic”

“I can’t seem to meet tight deadlines”

“I am impatient with incompetent people”

“I lack judgment when I’m under stress”

“I sometimes make mistakes with my work”

“I’m detail oriented”

“I like to drink now and then”

“I can’t tolerate trite interview questions like this one”

Source: WSJ reporting


Out of Office: Job Loss in the Age of Blogs and Twitter


It’s been decades since Americans had this much time on their hands and — thanks to the Web — never have there been so many opportunities to burn it.

In November, Julia Otto was headed to her first day on a new job, car keys in hand, as an administrative assistant with a New Orleans construction company when her phone rang. Her position was eliminated before she even started.

Now, when she’s not sending out resumes or doing household chores, the 43-year-old spends several hours a day playing games. Her favorite is an adventure-puzzle game called “Mystery Case Files: Return to Ravenhearst,” where she hunts for clues inside a spooky mansion to unlock a mystery. She spends about $7 a month playing games on the Big Fish Games site.

“They’re an affordable way to help forget,” says Ms. Otto. “It’s not soap operas and chocolate.”

As Americans — grappling with layoffs and grim economic news — try to find ways to fill their time, the Internet is helping people with job searches. But the medium is performing another important role: a social anesthesia that distracts people from the stress of unemployment.

During the Great Depression, many unemployed workers spent entire afternoons watching films at movie houses like this in Eugene, Ore.

As the nation grapples with rising layoffs and grim economic news, more and more people are escaping by goofing off online. Are you spending extra time on the Internet lately? Share your views in Journal Community.

Internet games, gambling and other forms of online entertainment have seen significant surges in use in the several months since the economic downturn deepened. Social-networking services like Facebook, blogs and discussion forums — all well-known time sinks even during good times — are also seeing strong growth. Some purveyors of online entertainment say business has never been so good for them.

Robert Kraut, a professor of social psychology and human computer interaction at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, says games and other forms of entertainment can provide escape for people steeped in anxieties about the economy. “There’s evidence these distractions have a psychological benefit because they prevent a downward spiral of rumination,” says Dr. Kraut.

The trend echoes the escape mechanisms that people turned to during the Great Depression in the 1930s. At the time, people paid a nickel to spend entire afternoons and evenings watching films featuring Charlie Chaplin and others, cartoons and newsreels, says Gary Handman, a director at the Media Resources Center at the University of California at Berkeley.

Mr. Handman believes the Internet is assuming a similar role now in part because of how relatively inexpensive it is compared with, say, a $10 movie ticket that buys only a couple of hours of entertainment, even though movie attendance is strong. “The Internet, in particular, has blown everything else away,” Mr. Handman says. “People are getting their entertainment for free wherever they can.”

Many online entertainment categories were seeing steady growth even before the economy took a turn for the worse a few months ago, and public interest in the November U.S. presidential election also drove traffic to online video, social networking and other sites. But the sudden rise in usage in some online categories at the end of the year stands out from past growth trends.

The number of visitors to online game sites jumped 29.9% during the fourth quarter of last year, compared with a 0.3% decline during the same period the prior year, according to comScore Inc. Traffic on Internet gambling sites soared 28.6% over the holiday quarter, compared with a 26.9% decline over the holiday season the previous year, comScore says.

For Big Fish Games, the company behind “Mystery Case Files,” business has never been better. Revenue jumped 70% to $85 million last year, and the best sales in its seven-year history occurred in January, says Jeremy Lewis, the Seattle company’s chief executive. In January, Big Fish’s membership grew 110% faster than in September, the month before the economy worsened — an unusual development since its subscriptions typically grow at a steady rate throughout the year, says Mr. Lewis. The company currently has more than 30 job openings.

People are escaping online in other ways too. On Monday, the popular celebrity gossip hound who goes by the name Perez Hilton said in a post on his Web site that January was his biggest month ever for traffic. “When times are tough, you turn to PerezHilton.com!” he wrote. Last week, the online movie rental service Netflix Inc. said its number of subscribers grew 26% over the holidays to 9.4 million, compared with 18% in the same period the year before.

Monica Ross-Williams, 38, gravitated to a different form of online escape late last year. Ms. Ross-Williams, who launched a janitorial services business in Canton, Mich., last June, remains underemployed because of the slow economy, scratching out just nine hours of work a week for three clients. With so much time to fill, she joined professional social-networking site LinkedIn in October to start connecting with business contacts.

In December, she also joined social networking site Facebook and started reconnecting with high-school friends. Last month, Ms. Ross-Williams also jumped at the chance to become the online moderator of a small business Web forum where she spends about two hours a day posting notes and cleaning up comments by other users. “Time flies now,” she says.

There’s precedent for a surge in online usage during traumatic times. Past studies have shown bursts of Internet activity around events such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks, when many people went online to gather information and express their feelings and concerns, says Dr. Kraut of Carnegie Mellon. In such situations, he says, people turn to Internet discussion groups, blogs and other communications tools for “sensemaking,” as they sort out with others the change roiling the world around them.

Larry Hawes, 47, was laid off from his job as a consultant at International Business Machines Corp. in November. But he has never lost touch with his former co-workers. The Ipswich, Mass., resident spends a lot more time building up his personal blog, which is dubbed “Together, We Can!” He also sends out more Twitters, a service for broadcasting short messages to a circle of friends and associates. He says he is on Twitter all day, sending out about 10 posts a day to a group of 137 people, including former IBM colleagues and other friends. In total, he adds, he’s sent out 652 “tweets” since October.

“I’m maintaining relationships with IBM-ers because I don’t work there anymore,” says Mr. Hawes.

Others find comfort in new friendships forged in unemployment. Prior to October, Cara Wayman, 27, spent very little time online. With her full-time job at a nursing home as a nurse assistant and as a part-time student studying for a sociology-psychology degree, the resident of Lynn, Mass., says she only logged in online two to three times a week for 15 minutes a pop. But in October, Ms. Wayman was laid off from her nursing-home job and she now spends five hours a day online. When she wants to switch off entirely, Ms. Wayman plays Sudoku and other games “to step out of reality,” she says.

But much of her time is spent job seeking on social-networking sites and even the “General Hospital Happenings” forum for denizens of the daytime television soap opera. Her interactions quickly evolved from just job-searching to online friendships. “It’s kind of like a support group,” she says. “I refresh pages a billion times” to see if people have replied to my posts, says Ms. Wayman. All of this time spent online is “kind of embarrassing,” she says.

She’s not alone. Shirley Condon of Colleyville, Texas, runs the General Hospital forum and says the economy has reshaped the tone and purpose of the discussions. The stay-at-home mother of two teenage daughters says the number of visits to the forum has surged to as many as 20,000 visits a week, from 10,000 last year. More and more of the recent postings in the forum have been about the economy, rather than “General Hospital,” says Ms. Condon.

“A lot of the people have lost their jobs and can’t afford shrinks so they’re coming on the site and asking, ‘How do I handle it?’ ” she says. “People are frantic. There’s more drama in real life now for sure than on the TV.”

Write to Nick Wingfield at nick.wingfield@wsj.com and Pui-Wing Tam at pui-wing.tam@wsj.com
Printed in The Wall Street Journal, page A11